How to Select a Life Vest
Last updated: 9/26/2019
Selecting a life jacket can be a daunting challenge. We carry a large selection of life vests to meet the needs of individual boaters and they vary widely in price, by activity and by United States Coast Guard Type. To make the process easier, we've compiled all the information you need to make an educated selection for you and your crew.
Our video below, How to Choose the Right Life Jacket, sheds some light on the subject. Further on in the article, we go over the United States Coast Guard (USCG) requirements and rating system, the types of life jacket we recommend for multiple types of water activities, additional features to consider and some basic recommendations for safety on the water.
U.S. Coast Guard Life Jacket Requirements
The Coast Guard requires you to have one life vest of Type I, II, III or V of the correct size for each person on board your boat. This requirement also applies to kayaks and, in most cases, stand up paddle boards. On boats longer than 16', you need to have a throwable device, such as a cushion, horseshoe, ring buoy or a Lifesling.
- Type I is typically a large, commercial vest with 22 pounds of buoyancy that’s intended for commercial vessels, not recreational vessels.
- Type II usually describes the old-style, inexpensive Type II, always orange, with one strap. While these meet Coast Guard requirements, they’re not comfortable, and we would recommend a different type of life jacket.
- Type III life jackets provide 15-1/2 pounds of buoyancy and pretty good in-water performance. Their main benefit is the number of styles available. Wakeboarders, kayakers, sailors and boaters who engage in other activities can find a Type III life vest that’s made for their style of boating. You can even find Type III products—float coats—that look like a jacket and are ideal for colder seasons.
- Type IV is a throwable PFD required on any boat 16 feet and longer (except sailboards, racing shells, rowing sculls, racing canoes, and racing kayaks).
- Type V is a catchall category for life vests that don’t fit into one of the Type I, II or III categories. Automatic inflatable life jackets with a built-in harness are frequently assigned to this category. Although classed as "Type V", many of these offer Type II or Type III performance. Type V life jackets such as these might have the features you need for your style of boating.
- PFDs must be Coast Guard Approved, in good serviceable condition and the appropriate size for the intended user.
- The Coast Guard considers a stand-up paddleboard to be a “vessel” when used “beyond the narrow limits of a swimming, surfing or bathing area.” This means that SUPs used outside of the surf zone are required to carry a Personal Flotation Device (PFD), a whistle (or other sound producing device) and, if out after dark, a white light to give warning to other boaters in the area. In most states, children under age 13 are required to wear a life vest.
Type IV Throwable Device. Not to be worn.
What type of boating do you enjoy?
Select a life jacket with the features you need for the type of boating or water activity you enjoy. Our selection of life jackets breaks down into eight different classifications: recreational, water sports, day sailing, fishing, offshore sailing, offshore powerboating, paddlesports and commercial.
This type is recommended for powerboats or sailboats in relatively calm, warm water, where comfort and freedom of movement are important. Choose from our selection of general purpose recreational vests with a belted or zip-up design, or an inshore inflatable vest. The choices are many since this is the most popular type of boating, but demands are not very rigorous.
Owners of small powerboats often choose belted vests, which can be adjusted for a comfortable fit depending on the conditions, while sailors will select a more flexible vest or an inflatable. Our Coastal Inflatable Vests with 26 pounds of buoyancy are easy to wear, don’t restrict movement and are available in automatic, manual, and belt pack manual designs. They fit adult boaters over 80 pounds with 30" to 52" chest sizes.
We also sell a remarkable number of economical Type II vests, but we don’t recommend them as primary PFDs since they are bulky and restrict movement onboard and in the water. We suggest you purchase Type II vests as extra vests for unexpected guests, or consider stocking up on some relatively low-priced Type III vests of different sizes and designs, which tend to fit better and are more likely to be worn.
Activities like wakeboarding, water skiing, being towed on an inflatable tube and riding a personal watercraft present a risk of hitting the water at high speed. PFDs for water sports must withstand these impacts and remain intact and attached to your body. Belted vests with three or four strong belts encircling your torso work best because they won’t get torn off easily, even when you wipe out at high speed. Look for vests that have "water sports" marked on the label, and ensure that they can be adjusted to a snug fit.
Type III Medalist Day Sailing Life Jacket for adults offers a minimum of 15 pounds of buoyancy. Life jacket buoyancy can be used to right this El Toro in the event of a capsize.
Sailing small boats requires PFDs that fit snug to the body and that maximize freedom of movement. The preferred style has a zippered closure and is made from soft, pliable foam. Day sailing vests often feature an articulating design, with strips of foam inserted into channels that enables the vest to flex and wrap comfortably around your torso. Large armholes offer additional freedom of movement, but may allow the vest to ride up when in the water, so a snug fit is important. If you sail a dinghy or beach catamaran, your PFD may have to be worn with a trapeze harness, so take the harness with you when you shop for a new life jacket. Day Sailing vests are a good choice for a variety of boating styles except for high-speed watersports.
Fishing vests include built-in pockets to accommodate anglers who often carry a collection of lures, leaders and other gear. Anglers with high-speed bass boats require vests designed to survive high-speed impacts. Therefore, we offer two distinct types of fishing vests: those with pockets that can hold lure boxes, snacks or fishing tools, and those with wide encircling belts. The second style is similar to watersports PFDs and can be adjusted to a snug and secure fit, so the vest will stay on during high-speed impacts.
Offshore vests provide lots of buoyancy, freedom of movement and typically a safety harness that the wearer tethers onto jacklines to stay connected to the boat. In the past, offshore sailors chose between a life jacket and a safety harness, since the two items were seen as interfering with one another. Today’s inflatable life jackets with integrated harnesses provide a high level of safety in one single product. Offshore PFDs are now available with Hammar hydrostatic inflators, so they won’t suddenly inflate due to spray, rain or humidity. West Marine/Mustang Ocean Series vests only inflate when submerged. Manual and automatic inflation options are available. Virtually all models in the Offshore Sailing category will have similar 35 pounds of buoyancy and a harness that complies with International Sailing Federation (ISAF) standards.
We recommend that offshore powerboaters also have one or two of these vests aboard. You never know when you might need to venture out onto a pitching, slippery deck in rough conditions—perhaps to get the anchor ready or to secure a dinghy that has come loose.
Passagemaking requires high-buoyancy life jackets designed for rough waters. While the chances of ending up overboard are far lower on a trawler with an enclosed pilothouse, the crew should always wear high-buoyancy inflatable PFDs every time they go on deck. If a crewmember goes overboard the time to rescue may be long, the water may be cold and the sea rough.
Canoeists, kayakers and whitewater rafters need PFDs that combine freedom of movement and protection. Many specialized life jackets have been developed for niche markets and different styles of paddling, so make sure you try different models that are labeled for paddle sports. Most feature large arm holes for freedom of movement and to reduce chafe when paddling. Kayakers may need vests with high-cut waists that don’t interfere with a spray skirt. Waist-worn inflatable vest belt packs are popular amoung stand-up paddle boarders. This option, while allowing 100% freedom of movement, is for competant swimmers only, because it requires the user to don the vest manually while in the water.
Commercial vessels must have specific types of life jackets onboard to be legal. We offer a range of Type I life jackets and SOLAS-approved models, but we don’t recommend their use on recreational boats. Type I devices, due to their bulk, are not practical for recreational boating activities and require extra space to stow. However, if you operate a commercial fishing boat that is required to have Type I vests onboard, West Marine has you covered.
Other Features to Consider
Below are some other attributes or applications for life jackets that affect their performance requirements.
Dynamic Strength Testing
On the Underwriter’s Laboratory label on the inside of all approved vests is a Dynamic Strength Testing value, which used to be called the Impact Rating. This rating describes the strength of the life jacket when subjected to high-speed impacts. However, UL and the Coast Guard are quick to point out that it is unrelated to the injuries that a user might suffer during a high-speed impact; it only measures the resistance of the fabric, belts to failure. Vests with multiple encircling belts are appropriate for high-speed water sports.
If you boat in cold climates you should understand the importance of hypothermia protection. Immersion in cold water rapidly reduces your core body temperature, leading to greatly impaired physical and mental capabilities. Even a five-minute immersion in 50°F water can impair your ability to climb a ladder, catch a line, or tread water. In addition to protective clothing such as exposure coveralls, immersion suits, wetsuits, and float coats, a properly fitted Type III vest also can delay the onset and lessen the effects of hypothermia. High buoyancy vests like offshore inflatables allow the wearer to assume the Heat Escape Lessening Posture (HELP), which can double survival times by reducing heat loss to the water.
Crew who have gone overboard may lose consciousness, either through injury or due to hypothermia. In this case, high-buoyancy inflatable or Type I vests are the best choice. These vests are designed to right an unconcious victim face-up in the water and with their extra buoyancy increase the victim's freeboard, which is the distance from the water's surface to their mouth.
Infants and small children are hard to keep floating in a face-up position, and sometimes protest when wearing a PFD. Frankly, we think that boating with infants is not a very good idea if there is any likelihood of the baby ending up in the water. As kids get older and more water-savvy they become right at home onboard. There are many choices for well-fitting PFDs that provide stability and buoyancy.
Those of us who have had to pull our children out of the water appreciate behind-the-head flotation collars designed for smaller kids. These come standard with a grab strap and crotch straps. We highly recommend testing the life jacket you select for your child ahead of time in a safe environment, like a pool, to familiarize yourself and your child with the device’s characteristics.
Classifying Inflatables by Coast Guard Types
Prior to Coast Guard-approved inflatables, you could determine a PFD’s type by sight. Type IIIs looked like vests or float coats, Type IVs were horseshoes, rings, or cushions, and so forth. The introduction of inflatables changed everything. Inflatables are given a Coast Guard type, just like non-inflatables, but they are also given a performance type and a designation as to whether they have to be worn to be counted in the vessel’s life jacket inventory. What this means is that you cannot simply say that an inflatable is a Type III and equate its characteristics to the Type III that you are familiar with. Here are some pointers on how inflatables are classified:
- Inflatables with harnesses are, by default, Type V life jackets. They come with instructions that you should be familiar with when wearing a harness. Their performance type is generally Type III or Type II.
- Belt pack inflatables are Type V life jackets with Type III performance because you have to slip the inflated chamber over your head.
- High buoyancy inflatables (150 N or 33 pounds of buoyancy) have a Type III performance rating if they are manually-activated with a ripcord, and a Type II performance rating if they are water-activated. Since the bladder and the rest of the life jacket are identical except for the inflator, once they’re inflated they perform exactly the same.
- The Coast Guard requires that automatic, water-activated inflatables with non-1F inflators have to be worn to be counted in the vessel’s inventory of life jackets. The most recent models with 1F inflators, so-called “stowables”, don’t have to be worn to be counted as inventory. However, this misses the point of inflatable PFDs, which are so comfortable that you’ll wear them while on the water.
- nshore Coastal Series inflatables use a 25g cylinder, and provide 26 pounds of flotation. They are only legal when worn.
The Newtons are coming!
The United States Coast Guard has removed references to "Type" codes in regulations on the carriage and labeling of Coast Guard-approved personal flotation devices. However, as of April, 2019, the majority of life jackets on the market in the United States still carry U.S. Coast Guard “Type-based” labels, which correspond to Type I, II, III or V life jackets and Type IV throwable devices. Going forward, these “Type codes” will gradually be replaced with icon-based labels that give the devices buoyancy rating in Newtons—which is a metric measurement equivalent to pounds force. Along with the rating in Newtons, other icons will indicate the limitations of use.
Life jackets currently labeled as “Type II” will be eventually be replaced by life jackets with a 70 Newton rating that are capable of turning most people face-up in the water. “Type III” devices will gradually be replaced with 70 Newton models—which like current “Type III” models are not designed to turn the wearer face-up. Does this mean you will need to ditch your current life jackets with "Type-based" labels? No. As long as your current life jackets are serviceable and fit the intended user you will be just fine.
Be Safe on the Water
- Always have the federally required safety equipment on board, meaning Coast Guard-approved life jackets. If you select non-approved devices, make sure you back them up with what the law requires.
- If you have an older, non-approved SOSpenders, Crewfit, or West Marine inflatable, wear it confidently until its useful life is over (around 10 years). If you have life jackets in your inventory that must be worn to be counted, back them up with Coast Guard approved life jackets so you are never caught short and suffer an expensive fine.
- Establish rules on board your boat defining when life jackets are to be worn and lead by example. Most states require that children always wear a life jacket. Where no state law exists, federal law requires children 13 years and younger to always wear one. Perhaps the same law should apply to parents—since there would be far fewer boating deaths if they always wear one.